Water Pumps: What They Are, How They Work, and Common Types Available?

6 Dec

If you live in a town or city, perhaps you don’t think of how water is often supplied to your resident daily. Some villages have also set up a few pieces to transfer water to different homes in the region. And to be able to do that, they use water pumps.

What a Water Pump Is?

It is a machine you can use to transfer water from one place to another for irrigation and drinking. Others use water pumps to get rid of water from areas that experience flood to prevent damage to properties.

If you have modern ones, you can use electricity to drive them. But you can still power your water pump from other sources, like gasoline. You can click here for more information.

How They Work?

How water pumps work heavily depends on the positive displacement principle and kinetic energy required to push water. Some use AC/DC power to energize the motor, while others use gasoline engines to power the system.

Portable ones are more common, and because of that, they are used in a few household applications. For instance, you can use them to drain water from low flood regions and refill your swimming pool/bathtub.


Different forms of water pumps offer the same services but work differently. The most common ones that you can buy from stores like Garpen include the following:

1. Positive Displacement Pump

A positive displacement pump delivers a specific amount of water through mechanical expansion and contraction of the diaphragm. Although this pump is relatively efficient, it needs a small clearance between the system’s outer edge and the rotating pump. This means rotation is carried out at a slower rate. When high speed is necessary, liquids can erode and reduce the pump’s overall efficiency.

A positive displacement water pump is commonly used because it is efficient. It removes air from the line and consequently eliminates the importance of bleeding. The pump is also more suitable for a high-viscosity liquid.

2. Boiler Water Circulating Pump

This kind of pump takes the heated water in the boiler and distributes it to heat exchangers and different pipes. In the process, thermal energy passes through the heated water through conduction via a convector or radiator, where current heats the air inside the room. Normally, a relay circuit electronically powers and controls circulating pumps. This relay circuit closes when heat is needed and opens when the room temperature passes a particular set point.

3. Horizontal Centrifugal Pump

This type of pump includes two additional impellers. It is used in various applications, and every stage acts as a manifold pump.

Every phase is in the same bunker and attached to the same shaft. You can install at least eight more phases on a separate horizontal shaft. Each stage improves the head by almost the same amount.

4. Vertical Centrifugal Pump

A vertical centrifugal pump is also known as a cantilever pump. It uses a unique shaft and maintains a design that allows the volume to fall in the pit since the bearings are outside.

This type of pump also uses no filling container to cover the shaft. Instead, it uses a throttle bushing. A common application for this pump is a parts washer.

5. Submersible Pump

Manufacturers design submersible pumps to fully submerge in the water. This makes them more suitable for applications involving wastewater management, deep well pumping, and groundwater extraction, to name a few. They are sealed hermetically to ensure water doesn’t enter the motor. This, in turn, ensures reliable and safe operations.

A submersible pump pushes water to the surface instead of pulling it. The pump is efficient when pumping water from greater depths and may deliver high pressure. Because of that, it is suitable for industrial processes, residential water supply, and irrigation. In addition, their ability to submerge enables them to eliminate the importance of priming and minimize noise.

6. Reciprocating Pump

This type of positive displacement pump comes with a cavity extending on the machine’s suction side and decreasing on the machine’s discharge side.

The cavity expansion is often positioned on the side of the suction. Every cycle of this water pump has the same volume, irrespective of the pressure being applied and the pump head size used. That is because the water pump fills the machine’s cavity and displaces the water.

7. Fountain Pump

You will find fountain pumps in water features or fountains to make the environment look good. In the last few years, people have been using fountain waterscapes in urban areas to provide a perfect place to relax after enjoying a good meal.

As people’s living standards improve, more medium- or small-sized fountains appear in musicals, restaurants, hotels, theaters, concert venues, KTVs, and bars, among other public areas. This is slowly replacing traditional waterscapes in different scenes.

8. Lift Pump

Also known as a sucker-road pump, it is a manually operated pump found in wells. It works by lifting water from cylinders found below the water level of a well.

These cylinders have a check valve and piston. A handle is also attached to the pump’s surface and mechanically connected to a piston through rods.

As you lift up and down a handle, the system pumps water through a network of pieces. A lift pump is mostly used as a backup to a submersible pump in different wells across economically developed countries like Australia.

9. Pressure Booster Pump

Opt for a pressure booster pump if you need a pressurized and smooth water supply at home. This type of pump comes with an in-built pressure tank to keep water pressure constant in every opening. The water pump often stops and draws water supply depending on the set pressure – meaning you don’t need to adjust water pressure or water supply.

Parting Words

When choosing a water pump, opt for centrifugal pumps, which are more common in irrigation and other sectors because of their minimal risks of leaks, low friction loss, and simple design. You can also opt for submersible pumps as they are efficient for underground water sources.